SBA 504 Loans: Your Guide To SBA/CDC Real Estate & Equipment Loans

The SBA 504 loan is a financing program offered by the Small Business Administration and Certified Development Companies. The loans, while selective, are open to eligible, for-profit small businesses operated by United States citizens and resident aliens. 504 loans are fit for small businesses in search of fixed interest rates with long-term financing and smaller down payments.

What Is The SBA CDC/504 Loan Program?

The SBA CDC/504 Loan Program is a financing program backed by the Small Business Administration. The goal of the program is to promote business growth and job creation through the support of small businesses.

The SBA connects recipients with a Certified Development Company (CDC). CDCs are non-profit organizations, certified and regulated by the SBA. These CDCs provide fixed-rate, long-term financing in partnership with lenders and the SBA. There are around 260 CDCs in the nation, which serve their local economies.

How Can SBA 504 Loans Be Used?

Often, 504 loans are referred to as SBA Real Estate Loans or SBA Commercial Real Estate Loans because of their strict usage policies, which make them a great option for purchasing fixed assets, like real estate.

In fact, proceeds from a small business real estate loan can only be used for fixed assets and few soft costs. The money cannot be used for working capital, inventory, or consolidating or paying debt.

Recipients of 504 Loans can use the proceeds to:

  • Purchase an existing building
  • Purchase land and land improvements
  • Construct new facilities
  • Renovate existing facilities
  • Purchase machinery and equipment for long-term use
  • Refinance debt in connection with renovating facilities or equipment

If your needs for financing don’t fit the bill, consider looking into the SBA 7(a) Loan Program, which offers broader options for small businesses.

CDC 504 Loan Pros & Cons

If you’re wondering whether this loan program is right for your small business, look into the pros and cons. Some small business owners prefer the 504 over the 7(a) loan and vice-versa. Consider the following if you’re looking into receiving a 504 loan:

Pros

  • Offers 90% financing, resulting in savings and improved cash flow for small businesses.
  • 504 Loan recipients often enjoy lower rates than those with traditional loans.
  • Recipients can include any 504 refinancing costs within the given loan.
  • Borrowers have the option to use given equity in the fixed asset as collateral.
  • The 504 Loan offers lower down payments of around 10%, compared to 25–30% on traditional loans.
  • Recipients of 504 loans can receive long-term capital: 20-year, fully amortized financing.

Cons

  • The CDC 504 Loan is selective about borrowers and usage of funds. If you meet all qualifications, this may be a positive for your business. For many businesses, however, this can be a burden. If you need funds for versatile needs and need a flexible loan, the 504 is not for you.
  • While borrowers can use funds to refinance eligible business operating expenses, there is a maximum 85% loan-to-value, meaning such operating expenses may not exceed 25% of the total value of eligible fixed assets.   
  • Prepayment penalties exist during the first half of the loan term. These rates are usually 100% of interest lost in the first year, 90% of interest lost in the second year, and so on, until the tenth year, in which it is equal to 0%.

SBA 504 Loans VS 7(a) Loans

If you’ve been doing your research on SBA loans, you know that 7(a) loans, like 504 loans, can be used to purchase real estate and equipment, construct, and renovate. So, what is the difference between a 504 loan and a 7(a) loan?

CDC / 504 Loans SBA 7(a) Loans

Loan Size

The CDC portion of the loan has a size limit, but the overall loan can be used to finance larger projects.

Offers flexibility for size projects, but are generally used for smaller sized projects.

Interest Rates

504 loans offer fixed-rate financing, which locks in low rates for the full length of the loan.

Usually has lower fees, but are variable, not fixed, and are adjusted quarterly. Rates typically rise over time.

Prepayment Penalty

High prepayment penalties

Prepayment penalties vary depending on loan

Loan Structure

  • 50% Bank Loan
  • 40% CDC Loan
  • 10% Borrower Down Payment

Varies depending on risk. Minimum 10% down payment for the borrower.

Loan Fees

Fees are negotiated per the 50% bank loan. Can be financed within the 504 loan.

Fees are based on the size of the loan. Can be financed within the 7(a) loan. An extra .25% of fees can be charged on portions of a 7(a) loan exceeding $1 million.

Do You Qualify? Borrower Requirements For SBA 504 Loans

To be eligible for an SBA 504 Loan, there are strict requirements a business must meet:

  • Borrowers must first meet the SBA size requirements
  • Businesses must have a tangible net worth less than $15 million.
  • You must also have an average net income less than $5 million (after federal income tax) the two previous years before applying.
  • Businesses must be for-profit
  • Businesses must be owned by U.S. citizens or resident aliens with permanent resident status.

For businesses wishing to gain financing for projects involving real estate, the business must occupy a minimum of 51% of rentable property for existing structures. Businesses intending to build a space must intend to occupy at least 60% of rentable property, with the intention of occupying 80% with growth.

As the 504 Loan is intended to directly create jobs, borrowers must also meet the job creation and retention requirement. This requires the business to create one job per $65,000 received in SBA financing. If the borrower is a small manufacturer, they must create one job per $100,000 borrowed.

If your business engages in other credible community goals, the job creation requirement can be waived. Such initiatives include community development goals, public policy goals, or modernizing facilities for health, safety, or environmental reasons.

There is no minimum credit score required, although it is best that you know ahead of time whether you can afford a small business loan.

SBA 504 Loan Terms, Fees, and Amounts

SBA 504 Loan Interest Rates & Fees

504 loans offer fixed rates and fees, set by the current market rate for 5-year and 10-year Treasury issues. If you’re receiving financing through a 504 loan, you can expect long-term fixed rates. SBA loan rates and fees will vary depending on the loan amount, lender, etc. 504 fees often include:

  • Interest Rates
  • CDC Servicing Fees
  • Central Servicing Agent Fees
  • SBA Guarantee Fees
  • Bank Fees
  • Third Party Fees (if applicable)
  • Prepayment Fees

SBA 504 Loan Borrowing Amounts

There is no maximum project size for businesses applying for a 504 loan. There is, however, a maximum SBA loan amount of $5 million. This debenture varies if the borrower is a small manufacturer or is planning an eligible energy project. Such borrowers can qualify for up to $5.5 million.

The CDC/504 Loan Application Process

Businesses applying for a 504 Loan should be prepared to provide evidence of eligibility, indebtedness, and creditworthiness. The 504 Loan application is roughly thirteen pages long and requires information on project cost, energy efficiency goals, debenture pricing, etc. Once the application is completed, it should be submitted to the CDC, which will then forward the information to the SBA Loan Processing Center.

Final Thoughts

The SBA 504 Loan Program is a great option for small businesses in need of cash for fixed assets, expansion, or modernization. If you need fixed interest rates, long terms, and a smaller down payment, this might be for you. Check out our SBA Loan Calculator to estimate everything you need to know about your individual loan.

If 504 loans aren’t quite what you’re looking for, try checking out the 7(a) Loan Program, which offers wider flexibility for many small business owners. Applying for financing can be an arduous task, so always consider your individual business and make your decision based on what’s right for you!

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